Politics

From Shababpedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Politics is the activity through which people conform, preserve, oppose, disrupt and improve the general rules under which they live. Following David Easton, a "political system can be designated as those interactions through which values are authoritatively allocated for a society." For Max Weber, “a political association exists if ... the enforcement of its order is carried out continually within a given territorial area by the application and threat of physical force”. Some common definitions understand politics as: the exercise of power; the public allocation of values; a way to resolve conflicts; or, the competition among individuals, groups, or states pursuing their interests. On the other hand, politics is often understood as the art and science of government as affairs of state. But the state is only a way of political organisation rooted in society that maintains a particular social order. As Aristotle remarked, a “human being is a political animal” and in consequence politics outside the formal organisation is important and politics includes social relations embraced. These relations take in the conflicts between the individuals, groups, classes and age groups that make up civil society. The term civil society has been defined as a political community, a society governed by law, under the authority of State, this is a form of government. More commonly, it is distinguished from the state, and the term is used to describe institutions that are independent from government and organised by individuals in pursuit of their own interests. In Arab societies, the word dawla has come to signify a state in the sense that this concept had acquired in Europe between the sixteenth and the twentieth centuries. The term and its referent have come to play a central role in modern political discourse.